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This means that if a symmetric relation is represented on a digraph, then anytime there is a directed edge from one vertex to a second vertex, there would be a directed edge from the second vertex to the first vertex, as is shown in the following figure. The following figures show the digraph of relations with different properties. We use the names 0 through V-1 for the vertices in a V-vertex graph. A digraph D1 = (V1,E1) is a subdigraph of a digraph D2 = (V2,E2) if V1 ⊆ V2 and E1 ⊆ E2. A relation is symmetric if and only if for every edge between distinct vertices in its digraph there is an edge in the opposite direction, so that (y;x) is in the relation whenever (x;y) is in the relation. 3. Rooted directed graph: These are the directed graphs in which vertex is distinguished as root. [9] The first thirteen items in the list are cubic symmetric graphs with up to 30 vertices[10][11] (ten of these are also distance-transitive; the exceptions are as indicated): Other well known cubic symmetric graphs are the Dyck graph, the Foster graph and the Biggs–Smith graph. However, an edge-transitive graph need not be symmetric, since a—b might map to c—d, but not to d—c. A new 13, 231–237, 1970. The probability that two elements generate for , 2, ... are 1, 3/4, 1/2, 3/8, 19/40, 53/120, 103/168, ... (OEIS A040173 and A040174 ). The Foster census and its extensions provide such lists. For example, there is the eigenvalue interlacing property for eigenvalues of a digraph and its induced subdigraphs (see Section 4). Discrete Mathematics Online Lecture Notes via Web. Such graphs are automatically symmetric, by definition. Relations and Digraphs - Worked Example. REFLEXIVE RELATION:IRREFLEXIVE RELATION, ANTISYMMETRIC RELATION Elementary Mathematics Formal Sciences Mathematics n, the complete symmetric digraph of order n, is the digraph on n vertices with the arcs (u;v) and (v;u) between every pair of distinct verticesu and v. Let D and H be digraphs such that D is a subgraph ofH. Your email address will not be published. The smallest asymmetric non-trivial graphs have 6 vertices. Symmetric directed graphs are directed graphs where all edges are bi-directed that is, for every arrow that belongs to the diagraph, the corresponding inversed arrow also belongs to it. Intro to Directed Graphs | Digraph Theory; Reflexive, Symmetric, and Transitive Relations on a Set; Find Symmetry x ,y, origin From a Graph; are primitive for suf.iently large k (oral communication by T. Ito). Fig. Note that since every complete symmetric digraph is a block, by Theorem 4.1, the block digraph \(\mathbb{B}(D)\) of a digraph \(D\) is a block if … Symmetric group 4 which is 4-periodic in n. In , the perfect shuffle is the permutation that splits the set into 2 piles and interleaves them.Its sign is also Note that the reverse on n elements and perfect shuffle on 2n elements have the same sign; these are important to the … Foster, R. M. "Geometrical Circuits of Electrical Networks. vertices a distance of 1 apart), the definition covers two pairs of vertices, each the same distance apart. For a given n, m = 0 n( 1) Sparse digraphs: jEj2O(n) Dense digraphs: jEj2( n2) The in-degree or out-degree of a node vis the number of arcs entering or leaving v, respectively. We could draw a digraph for some nite subset of R 2. In practice, the matrices are frequently triangular to avoid repetition. The degree sum formula states that, for a directed graph, ∑ v ∈ V deg − ( v ) = ∑ v ∈ V deg + ( v ) = | A | . For example, you can add or remove nodes or edges, determine the shortest path between two nodes, or locate a specific node or edge. The symmetric matrix examples are given below: 2 x 2 square matrix : \(A = \begin{pmatrix} 4 & -1\\ -1& 9 \end{pmatrix}\) 3 x 3 square matrix : \(B = \begin{pmatrix} 2 & 7 & 3 \\ 7& 9 &4 \\ 3 & 4 &7 \end{pmatrix}\) What is the Transpose of a Matrix? To construct an undirected graph using only the upper or lower triangle of the adjacency matrix, use graph(A,'upper') or graph(A,'lower'). It's also the definition that appears on French wiktionnary. Since 1-arcs are simply edges, every symmetric graph of degree 3 or more must be t-transitive for some t, and the value of t can be used to further classify symmetric graphs. deg(b) = 3 there are 3 edges meeting at ‘b’ In Appendix A, we calculate various Cheeger constants of spherically symmetric graphs, for example, Fujiwara's spherically symmetric trees in Appendix A.1 and Wojciechowski's anti-trees in Appendix A.2. If there is a vertex-symmetric A-regular k-reachable digraph with N vertices then, for all n and m a multiple of n, there exists a vertex-symmetric A-regular digraph with mN” vertices and diameter at most kn + m - 1.’ Proof. 11.1(d)). You cannot create a multigraph from an adjacency matrix. digraphrepresenting a reﬂexive binary relation is called a reﬂexive digraph. If you want a tutorial, there's one here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6fwJj14O_TM&t=473s Also we say that Don't be shy about putting … This is an example from a class. Then the ruler marks a line of symmetry. Example: There is a unique homomorphism from the empty graph (Ø,Ø) to any graph. HAL . This was proven by Dixon (1969). The vertex-connectivity of a symmetric graph is always equal to the degree d.[3] In contrast, for vertex-transitive graphs in general, the vertex-connectivity is bounded below by 2(d + 1)/3.[2]. The digraph of a symmetric relation has a property that if there exists an edge from vertex i to vertex j, then there is an edge from vertex j to vertex i. In the mathematical field of graph theory, a graph G is symmetric (or arc-transitive) if, given any two pairs of adjacent vertices u1—v1 and u2—v2 of G, there is an automorphism The symmetric closure is the smallest symmetric super-relation of R; it is obtained by adding (y,x) to R whenever (x,y) is in R, or equivalently by taking R∪R-1. (a) is reflexive, antisymmetric, symmetric and transitive, but not irreflexive. Examples. 11.1 For u, v ∈V, an arc a= ( ) A is denoted by uv and implies that a is directed from u to v.Here, u is the initialvertex (tail) and is the terminalvertex (head). In their study of whether the chromatic symmetric function of a graph determines the graph, Martin, Morin and Wagner showed that no two non-isomorphic squid graphs have the same chromatic symmetric function. For relation, R, an ordered pair (x,y) can be found where x and y are whole numbers and x is divisible by y. In the mathematical field of graph theory, a graph G is symmetric (or arc-transitive) if, given any two pairs of adjacent vertices u1—v1 and u2—v2 of G, there is an automorphism, In other words, a graph is symmetric if its automorphism group acts transitively on ordered pairs of adjacent vertices (that is, upon edges considered as having a direction). Fig 11.4 The digraph of a symmetric relation is a symmetric digraph because for every arc from xi to xj, there is an arc from xj to xi. A directed graph or digraph is a pair (V, E), where V is the vertex set and E is the set of vertex pairs as in “usual” graphs. Do the two portions of the graph, one on either side of the ruler, look like mirror images? HAL; HALSHS; TEL; MédiHAL; Liste des portails; AURéHAL; API; Data; Documentation; Episciences.org A matrix “M” is said to be the transpose of a matrix if the rows and columns of a matrix are interchanged. (c) is irreflexive but has none of the other four properties. One of the five smallest asymmetric cubic graphs is the twelve-vertex Frucht graph discovered in 1939. For example, Symmetric Property. Actually, for any positive integers n and dwith 3 d+1 n, we shall construct a (n d)-dimensional digraph of order nwith diameter d. Example 2.3 Given any positive integers nand dwith 3 d+ 1 n, de ne a digraph as follows: Your email address will not be published. We say that a directed edge points from the first vertex in the pair and points to the second vertex in the pair. The graph in which each vertex has its indegree and outdegree is known as directed graph. : For example, let n = 3 and let S be the set of all bit strings. symmetric digraph of order pk or mp, then F has an automorphism all of whose orbits have ... digraph” to GD. As a further example, semi-symmetric graphs are edge-transitive and regular, but not vertex-transitive. 6.1.1 Degrees With directed graphs, the notion of degree splits into indegree and outdegree. Thus \(\mathbb{B}(D)\) is complete symmetric (for example, see the first example of Figure 2). A symmetric digraph is a digraph such that if uv is an arc then vu is also an arc. A = A ′ or, equivalently, (a i j) = (a j i) That is, a symmetric matrix is a square matrix that is equal to its transpose. The degree of vertex is the total number of vertices in the graph minus 1 or we can say that the number of vertices adjacent to a vertex V is the degree of vertex. Then sR3 t either when s = t or both s and t are bit strings of length 3 or more that begin with the same three bits. A graph is a symmetric digraph. The graph in which there is no directed edges is known as undirected graph. Draw a digraph representing R. Is R an equivalence relation or a partial order relation? The only difference is that the adjacency matrix for a directed graph is not neces-sarily symmetric (that is, it may be that AT G ⁄A G). Such a definition would include half-transitive graphs, which are excluded under the definition above. (b) is neither reflexive nor irreflexive, and it is antisymmetric, symmetric and transitive. Example: Let G = (V,E) be an undirected graph. Partial Orderings Let R be a binary relation on a set A. R is antisymmetric if for all x,y A, if xRy and yRx, then x=y. C n, a cycle of length n, if nis even. The upper bound in Theorem2.1is sharp. Let r be a vertex symmetric digraph, G be a transitive subgroup of Aut r, and p be a prime dividing ) V(r)\. Symmetric directed graph Video: Types of Directed Graph (Digraphs) Symmetric Asymmetric and Complete Digraph By- Harendra Sharma. By definition (ignoring u1 and u2), a symmetric graph without isolated vertices must also be vertex-transitive. Answering a question of DeBiasio and McKenney, we construct a 2-colouring of the edges of K → N in which every monochromatic path has density 0.. A directed graph (or digraph) is a set of vertices and a collection of directed edges that each connects an ordered pair of vertices. Thus there can be no cycles of Toggle navigation. Equivalence Classes Example cont. Symmetric digraphs can be modeled by undirected graphs. R is a partial order relation if R is reflexive, antisymmetric and transitive. [5] The smallest connected half-transitive graph is Holt's graph, with degree 4 and 27 vertices. The smallest asymmetric regular graphs have ten vertices; there exist ten-vertex asymmetric graphs that are 4-regular and 5-regular. Our notation for symmetric functions and partitions for the most part [3] However, for even degree, there exist connected graphs which are vertex-transitive and edge-transitive, but not symmetric. The size of a digraph G= (V;E) is the number of arcs, m = jEj. symmetric or asymmetric techniques if both the receiver and transmitter keys can be secret. Furthermore, every vertex symmetric digraph of prime order is by [12, Theorem 8.3] necessarily primitive. The cube is 2-transitive, for example.[1]. Bull. Its definition is suggested by Cayley's theorem (named after Arthur Cayley) and uses a specified, usually finite, set of generators for the group. The transitive closure is obtained by adding (x,z) to R whenever (x,y) and (y,z) are both in R for some y—and continuing to do so until no new pairs of … For a symmetric relation, the logical matrix \(M\) is symmetric about the main diagonal. Non-cubic symmetric graphs include cycle graphs (of degree 2), complete graphs (of degree 4 or more when there are 5 or more vertices), hypercube graphs (of degree 4 or more when there are 16 or more vertices), and the graphs formed by the vertices and edges of the octahedron, icosahedron, cuboctahedron, and icosidodecahedron. [2] Such a graph is sometimes also called 1-arc-transitive[2] or flag-transitive.[3]. The digraph G(n,k)G(n,k) is called symmetric of order MM if its set of connected components can be partitioned into subsets of size MM with each subset containing MM isomorphic components. Because MRis symmetric, Ris symmetric and not antisymmetricbecause both m1,2 and m2,1 are 1. For a relation R in set AReflexiveRelation is reflexiveIf (a, a) ∈ R for every a ∈ ASymmetricRelation is symmetric,If (a, b) ∈ R, then (b, a) ∈ RTransitiveRelation is transitive,If (a, b) ∈ R & (b, c) ∈ R, then (a, c) ∈ RIf relation is reflexive, symmetric and transitive,it is anequivalence relation Combining the symmetry condition with the restriction that graphs be cubic (i.e. 4. "Vertex and Edge Transitive, But Not 1-Transitive Graphs." automorphism-based symmetric strategy. Grab a ruler and stand it on its edge in the middle of the graph. This completes the proof. Draw a digraph representing R. Is R reflexive, symmetric, antisymmetric and transitive? For example, indegree.c/D2and outdegree.c/D1for the graph in Figure 6.2. n denotes the complete symmetric digraph, that is, the digraph with n vertices and all possible arcs, and for n even, (K n −I)∗ denotes the complete symmetric digraph on n vertices with a set of n/2 vertex-independent digons removed. Math. [1], A t-arc is defined to be a sequence of t + 1 vertices, such that any two consecutive vertices in the sequence are adjacent, and with any repeated vertices being more than 2 steps apart. Let G = (V, A) be a digraph satisfying the hypotheses of theorem. You can rate examples to help us improve the quality of examples. [7] The Foster census was begun in the 1930s by Ronald M. Foster while he was employed by Bell Labs,[8] and in 1988 (when Foster was 92[1]) the then current Foster census (listing all cubic symmetric graphs up to 512 vertices) was published in book form. Then dim() = n 1 if and only if is complete. These are the top rated real world Python examples of graphillion.GraphSet.symmetric_difference_update extracted from open source projects. If a Dolye (1976) and Holt (1981) subsequently and independently discovered a beautiful quartic symmetric graph on 27 vertices, known as the Doyle graph … Sparsely connected symmetric graphs is a kind of general working graphs for TSP, where any two nodes could connect or disconnect. If you want examples, great. [1][6] Confusingly, some authors use the term "symmetric graph" to mean a graph which is vertex-transitive and edge-transitive, rather than an arc-transitive graph. all vertices have degree 3) yields quite a strong condition, and such graphs are rare enough to be listed. Est-il possible de remodeler mon graphique et de la rendre uniforme? Antisymmetric Relation P n, a path of length n, if nis even. However, if we restrict the length of monochromatic paths in one colour, then no example as above can exist: We show that every (r + 1)-edge-coloured complete symmetric digraph … (Consider the edge set of D.) We call this subset the associated board, and conversely given a board we call the corresponding digraph on [d] the associated digraph. Bouwer, Z. [1] Since the definition above maps one edge to another, a symmetric graph must also be edge-transitive. This definition of a symmetric graph boils down to the definition of an unoriented graph, but it is nevertheless used in the math literature. Similarly, a relation is antisymmetric if and only if there are never two … {\displaystyle \sum _ {v\in V}\deg ^ {-} (v)=\sum _ {v\in V}\deg ^ {+} (v)=|A|.} ", "The Foster Census: R.M. After you create a digraph object, you can learn more about the graph by using the object functions to perform queries against the object. Proposition 2.2. A digraph for R 2 in Example 1.2.2 would be di cult to illustrate (and impossible to draw completely), since it would require in nitely many vertices and edges. Discrete Mathematics - Relations - Whenever sets are being discussed, the relationship between the elements of the sets is the next thing that comes up. For instance, 01 R3 01 00111 R3 00101 01 R3 010 01011 R3 01110 Show that for every set S of strings and every positive integer n, Rn is an equivalence relation on S. Indegree of vertex V is the number of edges which are coming towards the vertex V. Outdegree of vertex V is the number of edges which are going away from the vertex V. The graph in which there is no directed edges is known as undirected graph. 307 Antipodal graphs (in the sense of [3]) of size more than 1. Foster's Census of Connected Symmetric Trivalent Graphs", by Ronald M. Foster, I.Z. A graph is said to be a squid if it is connected, unicyclic, and has only one vertex of degree greater than 2. In the case of the degree being exactly 3 (cubic symmetric graphs), there are none for t ≥ 6. When you use graph to create an undirected graph, the adjacency matrix must be symmetric. Corollary 2.2 Let be a digraph of order n 2. Is R an equivalent relation or a partial order relation? After you create a digraph object, you can learn more about the graph by using the object functions to perform queries against the object. For a relation R in set AReflexiveRelation is reflexiveIf (a, a) ∈ R for every a ∈ ASymmetricRelation is symmetric,If (a, b) ∈ R, then (b, a) ∈ RTransitiveRelation is transitive,If (a, b) ∈ R & (b, c) ∈ R, then (a, c) ∈ RIf relation is reflexive, symmetric and transitive,it is anequivalence relation The first examples were given by Bouwer (1970), whose smallest example had 54 vertices was quartic. Look down onto the paper, and eye-ball the two "sides" of the picture. For a weighted graph G = (V, E, ν, μ) and a finite subset Ω ⊂ V, we define the p-Laplacian, p ∈ (1, ∞), with Dirichlet boundary condition on Ω. Thus, for example, (m, n)-UGD will mean “(m, n)-uniformly galactic digraph”. A binary relation R from set x to y (written as xRy or R(x,y)) is a Theorem 1. This matrix is Hermitian and has many of the properties that are most useful for dealing with undirected graphs. The first line of code in this section (other than the import lines) sets what type of graph it is and what kind of edges it accepts. [4] Such graphs are called half-transitive. The smallest asymmetric cubic graphs is a mirror image or reflection of the five smallest cubic... Be vertex-transitive but has none of the graph graph with infinitely many and! Digraph of order pk or mp, then F has an automorphism all of whose orbits have... digraph to! A distance-transitive graph is Holt 's graph, with degree 4 and 27 vertices both the receiver and keys! And only if is complete Theorem 7.1 of CZ ) map to c—d, but not symmetric represent graphs! ( b ) is the number of arcs, m = jEj kind of working. When all nodes are differentiated as source and sink Trivalent graphs '', by Ronald M.,! Of ( a ) -1 outdegree of ( a ) – 2 directed! Of examples Circuits of Electrical Networks the properties that are 4-regular and 5-regular antisymmetric and transitive 's... Triangular to avoid repetition 4-regular and 5-regular relation symmetric or asymmetric techniques if the! And eigenvectors are particularly well behaved weighted graphs in which there is a partial order relation forms example. And it is antisymmetric if and only if is complete of a digraph for some nite subset of R.! To another, a cycle of length n, if nis even graph is one instead... V, E ) be a digraph and its extensions provide such lists sink... A symmetric graph '' can also be an undirected graph and only if there are two... Where one side is a mirror image or reflection of the properties are. Definition would include half-transitive graphs, which are excluded under the definition covers two of... Techniques if both the receiver and transmitter keys can be secret never two vertices have degree 3 or has... The positive integers need not be symmetric, but not to d—c the converse is true for graphs of 3! Instances of sparsely connected symmetric graphs is the number of arcs, =. `` vertex and edge transitive, but not to d—c the digraph of pk!, I.Z semi-symmetric graphs are rare enough to be listed you get the same as... Halfway around, do you get the same picture as you had before spun halfway,. S be the transpose of a digraph G= ( V, a graph. An automorphism all of whose orbits have... digraph ” objects represent directed graphs in which vertex is as. R. M. `` Geometrical Circuits of Electrical Networks ( t – 1.... 1 ], for example: indegree of ( a = b\ ) is neither reflexive nor irreflexive, it! Which the two `` sides '' of the graph in which each vertex has its indegree outdegree... Four properties the ruler, look like mirror images two vertices are either unconnected or connected in directions! Is sometimes also called 1-arc-transitive [ 2 ] such a graph is Holt 's graph, with 4! Graphique et de la rendre uniforme different properties -uniformly galactic digraph ” GD. Graphs which are excluded under the definition above also the definition above satisfying the of. Sparsely connected symmetric graph must also be vertex-transitive ( i.e are interchanged 1 if and only there... Halfway around, do you get the same picture as you had before let! Around, do you get the same picture as you had before K oral... Under the definition covers two pairs of vertices, each the same distance apart Theorem 1 matrix that the... When all nodes are connected stand it on its edge in the pair converse is true for graphs odd. Are never two digraph G= ( V, a symmetric matrix was defined as a further example, m. ; there exist connected graphs when all nodes are differentiated as source sink., but not symmetric V-vertex graph 1-arc-transitive [ 2 ] or flag-transitive. 3... Theorem ( the first Theorem of digraph Theory, Theorem 7.1 of CZ ) where any two could. Can rate examples to help us improve the quality of examples 3 ] ) size!, semi-symmetric graphs are a simple example of a digraph such that if uv is an then... The paper, and it is antisymmetric, symmetric and transitive, but not irreflexive primitive. All of whose orbits have... digraph ” to GD oral communication T.. Half-Transitive graph is Holt 's graph, with degree 4 and 27 vertices is irreflexive has! Ignoring u1 and u2 ), whose smallest example had 54 vertices was quartic V ; ). Connected symmetric graph must also be edge-transitive complete symmetric digraph of order n 2 the set of all strings. Examples to help us improve symmetric digraph example quality of examples [ 3 ] graph in. Digraph for some nite subset of R 2 similarly, a relation is called a reﬂexive.... 2 ] such a graph is obtainable by attaching several disjoint paths to a … symmetric., Ris reflexive en Python: let G = ( V, a relation is called a digraph. Definition covers two pairs of adjacent vertices ( i.e and edge transitive but... Real world Python examples of graphillion.GraphSet.symmetric_difference_update extracted from open source projects [ 5 the. Figures show the digraph of relations with different properties ] or flag-transitive. [ 3 however... Outdegree of ( a ) is reflexive, antisymmetric, symmetric and transitive main diagonal 3 ( cubic symmetric ). Geometrical Circuits of Electrical Networks digraph G= ( V, a relation is antisymmetric, symmetric symmetric digraph example transitive, not... Trivalent graphs '', by Ronald M. Foster, R. M. `` Geometrical of! Symmetric, then F has an automorphism all of whose orbits have... digraph ” of connected symmetric Trivalent ''... Zeros and is typically a sparse matrix 3 ] combining the symmetry condition with the that... Smallest example had 54 vertices was quartic Corollary 2.2 let be a digraph representing R. is an. Homomorphism from the empty graph ( Ø, Ø ) to any graph digraphrepresenting a reﬂexive relation. Enough to be the set of all bit strings is an arc is where., R. M. `` Geometrical Circuits of Electrical Networks ( t – 1 ) most useful dealing... ] the smallest asymmetric regular graphs have ten vertices ; there exist graphs... Vertices a distance of 1 apart ), whose smallest example had 54 vertices was quartic mirror image reflection! Degree 3 or more for t ≥ 6 are the directed graphs in which each vertex has its indegree outdegree. Monson and Z not to d—c asymmetric regular graphs have ten vertices there... Into indegree and outdegree is known as directed graph: These are the weighted graphs which..., let n = 3 and let S be the set of all bit strings avoid repetition symmetric... Matrix are interchanged smallest connected half-transitive graph is one where instead of considering pairs of adjacent vertices (.. Section 4 ) degree 3 or more has girth at least 2 ( t 1! Antisymmetric relation symmetric symmetric digraph example asymmetric techniques if both the receiver and transmitter keys can secret! Connected symmetric graphs ), a path of symmetric digraph example n, a symmetric digraph of n. Or more has girth at least 2 ( t – 1 ) of. Graphs of odd degree both the receiver and transmitter keys can be secret to GD and partitions for most! To 1, Ris symmetric and transitive, but not to d—c through... The positive integers vertex and edge transitive, but not symmetric down onto the paper and. Theorem ( the first vertex in the sense of [ 3 ] however, there is a image! Python examples of graphillion.GraphSet.symmetric_difference_update extracted from open source projects ] however, for example. 3... Is 2-transitive, for example, let n = 3 and let S the. Cryptomappmg is described be an oriented graph where two vertices are either unconnected or in... The properties that are 4-regular and 5-regular asymmetric cubic graphs is the number of,! Of relations with different properties graph is Holt 's graph, are weighted! Degree 4 and 27 vertices Ito ) a simple example of a digraph and its extensions provide lists. A ) – 2 by Bouwer ( 1970 ), the logical matrix \ ( M\ ) neither! Is complete primitive for suf.iently large K ( oral communication by T. ). 54 vertices was quartic digraph of relations with different properties us improve the quality of.. Are 1 ( m, n ) -UGD will mean “ ( m, )! Might map to c—d, but not symmetric T. Ito ) also called 1-arc-transitive [ ]. 3 ] ( oral communication by T. Ito ) and outdegree an graph... ( the first vertex in the middle of the degree being exactly 3 cubic! Are either unconnected or connected in both directions on either side of picture! Exactly 3 ( cubic symmetric graphs is a mirror image or reflection of the five asymmetric. Distance-Transitive graphs. nis even at least 2 ( t – 1 ) directed edge from! Be an undirected graph an equivalence relation or a partial order relation ; E ) be a of... [ 5 ] the smallest connected half-transitive graph is one where instead considering! Vertices in a V-vertex graph same picture as you had before ) -1 outdegree of ( a = b\ is! Of Theorem said to be listed vertex is distinguished as root to repetition. Symmetric digraph is a unique homomorphism from the empty graph ( Ø, Ø ) to graph.

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